The Hummingbirds' Foundation for M.E.

The Hummingbirds' Foundation for M.E. (HFME) is fighting for the recognition of M.E.,
and for patients to be accorded the same basic human rights as those with similar
disabling and potentially fatal neurological diseases such as M.S.

Research and articles

Research and articles: An important note

Before reading this research/advocacy information given in the links below, please be aware of the following facts:

1. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and ‘Chronic Fatigue Syndrome’ are not synonymous terms. The overwhelming majority of research on ‘CFS’ or ‘CFIDS’ or ‘ME/CFS’ or ‘CFS/ME’ or ‘ICD-CFS’ does not involve M.E. patients and is not relevant in any way to M.E. patients. If the M.E. community were to reject all ‘CFS’ labelled research as ‘only relating to ‘CFS’ patients’ (including research which describes those abnormalities/characteristics unique to M.E. patients), however, this would seem to support the myth that ‘CFS’ is just a ‘watered down’ definition of M.E. and that M.E. and ‘CFS’ are virtually the same thing and share many characteristics.

A very small number of ‘CFS’ studies refer in part to people with M.E. but it may not always be clear which parts refer to M.E. The
A warning on ‘CFS’ and ‘ME/CFS’ research and advocacy paper is recommended reading and includes a checklist to help readers assess the relevance of individual ‘CFS’ studies to M.E. (if any) and explains some of the problems with this heterogeneous and skewed research.

In future, it is essential that M.E. research again be conducted using only M.E. defined patients and using only the term M.E. The bogus, financially-motivated disease category of ‘CFS’ must be abandoned.

2. The research referred to on this website varies considerably in quality. Some is of a high scientific standard and relates wholly to M.E. and uses the correct terminology. Other studies are included which may only have partial or minor possible relevance to M.E., use unscientific terms/concepts such as ‘CFS,’ ‘ME/CFS,’ ‘CFS/ME,’ ‘CFIDS’ or Myalgic ‘Encephalopathy’ and also include a significant amount of misinformation. Before reading this research it is also essential that the reader be aware of the most commonly used ‘CFS’ propaganda, as explained in A warning on ‘CFS’ and ‘ME/CFS’ research and advocacy and in more detail in Putting research and articles on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis into context.

Research and articles sorted by topic

Research topics:  


Article topics: 


Health and treatment related research and articles:


Read Putting research and articles into context  

Research and articles sorted by author

Highly recommended authors:

More recommended authors:

More authors (recommended in a limited way only; included purely for informational purposes):

Highly recommended M.E. groups:

Other groups and authors no longer recommended by HFME:


Read Putting research and articles into context

This is not a complete list of noteworthy M.E. advocates and authors. If you would like to suggest an author to be added to this list please do so by email.

Also note that sadly while many of the authors here produced excellent work at one point, many have since lowered their standards, quality and even integrity considerably - to the point that this site can no longer offer full support or any support for their current work as it as so at odds with the facts and with the best interests of patients. (For example, randomly mixing together facts about M.E. and 'CFS, or advocating for the bogus sub-grouping of 'ME/CFS' or 'CFS', or for 'CFS' to be renamed as M.E. is not in the best interests of any patient groups, it makes a mockery of legitimate activism. The only winners with these 'strategies' are the same vested interest groups which benefit from the 'CFS' scam.)

These comments apply to any and all groups or individuals supporting any of these counter-productive, misleading and false activism strategies; including some listed here.

One of the most baffling and frustrating parts of M.E. activism is working out why this happens to so many formerly genuine excellent advocates and doctors, and how we can stop it happening.  

Additional notes

Links given to individual articles hosted on other websites are in no way indicative of support or recommendations of any other part of those websites. 

Not all articles on a topic are included in that section. It is not an exhaustive list of research or articles on that topic, merely a selection of some of the many articles on that topic which are available.

Articles in each section are not in any precise order so it is recommended that you read an entire section to get an overview.

Not every bit of every website or article mentioned has 100% good/accurate information all the way through. Amongst some great information there's often still some significant inaccuracies and continuation of some of the misconceptions about the illness. A list of 100% accurate articles would be extremely short unfortunately, such is the power of 'ME/CFS' and so on. BUT every link here, every website and article does have something relevant or useful to offer.

The HFME not dispense medical advice or recommend treatment, and assumes no responsibility for treatments undertaken by visitors to the site. It is a research-information and advocacy resource only.

Please consult your own health-care provider regarding any medical issues relating to the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.